Natural Progesterone: What Role in Women's Healthcare? References
Association of Women for the Advancement of Research and EducationToday is


ProjectAWARE logo


Read about the menopause experience. All sorts of options to manage menopause. Health issues such as osteoporosis and heart disease. Books, health links, studies and more!
You are here:  Home > Resources > Article Archives > Natural Progesterone...References  
Bookmark and Share

Natural Progesterone: What Role in Women's Healthcare? -- References

by Jane Murray, M.D. (September 1998)

  Abstract, Terminology  

Part 1:

Biosynthesis & Biochemistry, Physiological Activity, Toxicity  

Part 2:

Administration, Oral, Transdermal, Injection, Vaginal, Rectal, Sublingual, Intrauterine  

Part 3:

Therapeutic Uses, Menopausal HRT, Osteoporosis, Premenstrual Syndrome, Affective Disorders, Menstrual-related Allergies, Breast Disease  

Part 4:

Summary, Primary Points  



1. Northrup C. Women's Bodies; Women's Wisdom, New York, NY Bantam Books: 1994.

2. Whitaker J. Natural Hormone Replacement. Potomac, Md: Phillips Publishing, Inc; 1997

3. Wright JV Morgenthaler J. Natural Hormone Replacement. Petaluma, Calif: Smart Publications; 1997.

4. Lee JR. Natural Progesterone. The Multiple Roles of a Remarkable Hormone. Sebastopol, Calif: BLL Publishing: 1993.

5. Vliet, EL. Screaming To Be Heard. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc: 1995.

6. Love S. Dr. Susan Love's Hormone Book. New York, NY: Random House; 1997.

7. Lee JR. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause. New York, NY: Warner Books; 1996.

8. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 1995: 273:199-208.

9. Prior JC. Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocr Rev. 1990;11:386-398.

10. Hargrove JT, Maxson WS, Wentz AC, Burnett LS. Menopausal hormone replacement therapy with continuous daily oral micronized estradiol and progesterone. Obstet Gynecol. 1989:73: 606-612.

11. Maxson WS. The use of progesterone in the treatment of PMS. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1987:30:465-477.

12. Dalton K. The Premenstrual Syndrome and Progesterone Therapy. London, England: William Heinemann; 1984.

13. Vercellini P, De Giorgi O, Oldani S, et al. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus an oral contraceptive combined with very-low-dose danazol for long-term treatment of pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;175:396-401.

14. Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC, Foster C, et al. Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs, and patterns of use. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:246-252.

15. Williams CL, Stancel GM. Estrogens and progestins. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, et al, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill 1996:1411-1440.

16. Yen SSC. Endocrine-metabolic alterations in pregnancy. In: Yen SSC, Jaffe RB, eds. Reproductive Endocrinology. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1991:936-981.

17. Pharmacology of the endocrine system and related drugs. Progesterone, pro-gestational drugs, and antifertility agents. In: Tausk M, ed. International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics.New York, NY Pergamon Press; 1971.

18. Chang KJ Lee TT, Linares-Cruz G, et al. Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:785-791

19. Hargrove JT, Osteen KG. An alternative method of hormone replacement therapy using the natural sex steroids. Infertil Reprod Med Clin. 1995;6:653-674.

20. Bayliss DA, Millhorn DE. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action. Application to the respiratory system. J Appl Physiol. 1992:73:393-404.

21. Rudel HW, Kincl FA. The toxicity of progesterone. In: Tausk M, ed. International Encyclopedia of  Pharmacology and Therapeutics. New York, NY: Pergamon Press; 1971:405-409.

22. Ferre F, Uzan M, Janssens Y, et al. Oral administration of micronized natural progesterone in late human pregnancy. Effects on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in the plasma, placenta, and myometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984:148:26-34.

23. Maxson WS, Hargrove JT. Bioavailability of oral micronized progesterone. Fer til Steril. 1985:44:622-626.

24. Sitruk-Ware R, Bricaire C, DeLignieres B, et al. Oral Micronized progesterone. Bioavailability pharmacokinetics, pharmacological and therapeutic implications—A Review, Contraception. 1987; 36:373-402.

25.Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, et al. Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117: 1016-1037.

26. Gambrell RD, Jr. The prevention of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with progestogens. Maturitas. 1978; 1: 107-112.

27. Sitruk-Ware R. Transdermal delivery of steroids. Contraception. 1989:39:1-20.

28. Mauvais-Jarvis P, Baudot N, Bercovici JP. In vivo studies on progesterone metabolism by human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1969;29:1580-1585.

29. Nillius SJ, Johansson ED. Plasma levels of progesterone after vaginal, rectal, or intramuscular administration of progesterone. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1971; 110:470-477.

30. Myers ER, Sondheimer SJ, Freeman EW et al. Serum progesterone levels following vaginal administration of progesterone during the luteal phase. Ferill Steril. 1987;47:71-75.

31. Kimzey LM, Gumowski J, Merriam GR, et al. Absorption of micronized progesterone from a nonliquefying vaginal cream. Fertil Steril. 199 1;56:995-996.

32. Fanchin R, De Ziegler D, Bergeron C, et al. Transvaginal administration of progesterone. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90: 396-401.

33. Casanas-Roux F, Nisolle M, Marbaix E, et al. Morphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional evaluation of the endometrium of menopausal women treated by oestrogen and Crinone, a new slow-release vaginal progesterone. Hum Reprod. 1996; 11:357-363.

34. Pitha J, Harman SM, Michel ME. Hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivatives enable effective oral administration of steroidal hormones. J Pharm Sci. 1986; 75:165-167.

35. Antoniou G, Kalogirou D, Karakitsos P, et al. Transdermal estrogen with a levonorgestrel- releasing intrauterine device for climacteric complaints versus estradiol-releasing vaginal ring with a vaginal progesterone suppository. Clinical and endometrial responses. Maturitas. 1997;26:103-111.

36. Suvanto-Luukkonen E, Sundstrom H, Penttinen J, et al. Percutaneous estradiol gel with an intrauterine levonorgestrel releasing device or natural progesterone in hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas. 1997;26:211-217.

37. Sitruk-Ware R, Utian WH, eds. The Menopause and Hormonal Replacement Therapy. New York, NY:  Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1991.

38. van Keep PA, Utian WH, Vermeulen A, eds. The Controversial Climacteric. Lancaster, England: MTP Press Limited; 1981.

39. Lee JR. Is natural progesterone the missing link in osteoporosis prevention and treatment? Med Hypotheses. 1991; 35:316-318.

40. Lee JR. Osteoporosis reversal with transdermal progesterone. Lancet. 1990;336:1327.

41. Lindsay R, Tohme JF. Estrogen treatment of patients with established postmenopausal osteoporosis Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76:290-295.

42. Riggs BL, Melton LJ III. Involutional osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314: 1676-1686.

43. Utian WH. Menopause in Modern Perspective. New York, NY Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1980.

44. Dalton K. The Premenstrual Syndrome.Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas; 1964.

45. Dalton K. Trial of progesterone vaginal suppositories in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;156:1555-1556.

46. Freeman E, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M. Ineffectiveness of progesterone suppository treatment for premenstrual syndrome. JAMA. 1990:264: 349-353.

47. Magill PJ. Investigation of the efficacy of progesterone pessaries in the relief of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Br J Gen Pract. 1995;45:589-593.

48. Brown CS, Freeman EW, Ling FW. An update on the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Am J. Managed Care. 1998; 4:266-274.

49. Dennerstein L, Spencer-Gardner C, Gotts G, et al. Progesterone and the premenstrual syndrome. A double blind crossover trial. Br Med J. 1985:290: 1617-1621.

50. Gold JH, Severino SK, eds. Premenstrual dysphorias: myths and realities. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994.

51. George MS, Guidotti A, Rubinow D, et al. CSF neuroactive steroids in affective disorders. Pregnenolone, progesterone, and DBI. Biol Psychiatry. 1994;35: 775-780.

52. Physician' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics; 1998:822, 924, 2261,2263,3118,3123.

53. Miller JB. Relief of premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea and contraceptive tablet intolerance. A preliminary report. J Med Assoc State Ala. 1974:44:57-60.

54. Mabray CR, Burditt ML, Martin TL, et al. Treatment of common gynecologic-endocrinologic symptoms by allergy management procedures. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;59:560-564.

55. Beynon HL, Garbett ND, Barnes PJ. Severe premenstrual exacerbations of asthma. Effect of intramuscular progesterone. Lancet. 1988:2:370-372.

56. Sitruk-Ware R, Seradour B, Lafaye C. Treatment of benign breast diseases by progesterone applied topically. In: Mauvais-Jarvis P, Vickers CFH, Wepierre J, eds. Percutaneous Absorption of Steroids. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1980:219-229.

57. Cowan LD, Gordis L, Tonascia JA, Jones GS. Breast cancer incidence in women with a history of progesterone deficiency. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114:209-217.


Intro > Part 1 > Part 2 > Part 3 > Part 4 > References>


Top of page arrow








Dr. Murray is a professor of family medicine at the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City and medical director of the Sastun Center of Integrative Health Care in Mission, Kansas.
Article reprinted with permission of Women's Health In Primary Care
Download the full article as PDF



Adrenal Fatigue
Cortisol and Weight
DHEA or Testosterone for Women
Estrogen and Memory Loss
HRT for Breast Cancer Survivors and Women at High Risk for Cancer
Human Identical Hormones
Premarin, Facts and Opinions
Progesterone FAQ
Synthetic Progestins and Natural Progesterone, Differences
Natural Progesterone, What Role in Women's Healthcare
Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer
Testosterone and Its Benefits to Women
Testosterone's Impact on Postmenopausal Women...
Thyroid Hormone, Symptoms, and...
Typical HRT Products
Where to get Natural Hormones
Herbal Allies, An Introduction
Alternative Remedies for Menopausal Symptoms




This content is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice. Always consult your physician or other qualified healthcare provider with your questions regarding a medical condition.

Copyright 1997-2010 ProjectAWARE. All rights reserved.

Questions or comments about this site? Contact the Website Editor, <>